Major League Baseball and the Television Monopoly Game …
On December 8, 2011 the Los Angeles Angels rocked the baseball world with news that they had signed Albert Pujols to a 10 year $275 million contract … and C.J. Wilson to a 5 year $77.5 million deal – a combined $331.5 million. On Monday December 19th, it was announced that the Rangers had won the rights to negotiate with Japanese phenom pitcher Yu Darvish, with a record $51.7 million posting fee, which will be paid to the Hokkaido Nippon Ham Fighters. In 2006, the Red Sox shelled out more than $100 million in posting fees and contract to Daisuke Matsuzaka and it’s highly likely that when it’s all said and done that the Rangers will have dished out close to $120 million.
How can the Angels and Rangers afford to be backing up the Brinks armored car like they just inherited Scrooge McDuck’s Moneyvault?
The answer is -- they most certainly did … and it’s all about the boob tube baby …
Though it’s yet to officially be announced, the Angels and Fox Sports recently reached a 20 year deal worth $3 billion. Hmmm … those numbers sound familiar …
Oh yeah, that’s because that’s basically the exact same TV deal the Rangers got from Fox Sports back last year! Absolutely right – the Rangers and Fox cemented their 20 year marriage with a $3 billion kiss and a reported $75-80 million in revenues to the Rangers annually. I don’t know if there were any prenuptial agreements there, but if not, the Rangers and Fox will be partners through 2034.
Like pigs, Major League Baseball teams are all lining up at TV’s trough --- getting fat on the advertising dollars generated from broadcasts of their games. TV networks know that sports fans are their meal ticket, as they basically have a captive audience whom they know won’t be turning the channel.
So why should you – Average Joe Mariners Fan out there – care about all this talk surrounding TV Deals? Well the facts are that there is a direct relationship between television market size and overall revenues in baseball. And higher overall revenues (of course) mean there’s a greater chance that your favorite sports team will land that shiny high price impact free agent.
According the Forbes magazine, here were the top revenue producing clubs last year …
Top MLB Revenue Producers of 2011 (According for Forbes) …
(1) Yankees … $427 million
(2) Red Sox … $272 million
(3) Cubs ……..$258 million
(4) Dodgers … $246 million
(5) Phillies …. $239 million
(6) Mets ……. $233 million
And here are the top television markets according to the Nielson Ratings …
2011-2012 Nielson Ratings …
(1)New York … 7,387,810
(2)Los Angeles … 5,569,780
(3)Chicago … 3,493,480
(4)Philadelphia … 2,993,370
(5)Dallas-Ft. Worth … 2,571,310
(6)San Francisco-Oak-San Jose … 2,506,510
(7)Boston (Manchester) … 2,379,690
(8)Washington, DC (Hagrstwn) … 2,360,180
(9)Atlanta … 2,292,640
(10)Houston … 2,185,260
(11)Detroit … 1,842,650
(12)Seattle-Tacoma … 1,811,420
(13)Phoenix (Prescott) … 1,811,330
(14) Tampa-St. Pete (Sarasota) … 1,788,240
Sizing up the Competition …
There are those in the front office who’d have you believe the Mariners are just like that little guy. But is that an accurate picture of what the M’s truly are?
Those numbers cited above sure make sense of how the Angels and Rangers were able to land those monster deals. Monster deals for monster audiences -- having the Los Angeles and Dallas Markets (the #2 and #5 sized markets respectively) behind your ballclub will tend to do that. But as we know, broadcasts for Major League Baseball clubs aren’t confined to just the cities that bear their name. So, taking a look at the television markets and the size of their broadcast radius, here are the media markets for some of the top revenue producing clubs of 2011 as well as the Angels and Rangers …
[Rankings of each particular market are noted and the number of homes that subscribe to TV packages in each market]
Yankees Media Market …
New York is the #1 media market at 7,387,810 homes.
(30) Hartford & New Haven, Conn … 1,006,280 homes.
(41) Harrisburg-Lncstr-Leb-York … 729,440 homes.
(54) Wilkes Barre-Scranton, PA … 590,740 homes.
(79) Rochester, NY … 398,790 homes
(84) Syracuse, NY … 386,090 homes
(146) Erie, PA … 157,730 homes
(157) Binghamton … 136,730 homes
(172) Utica … 104,750 homes
(174) Elmira (Corning) … 96,600 homes
(177) Watertown … 93,090 homes
Total … 11,088,050 homes
Red Sox Media Market …
Boston (Manchester) is the #7 media market at 2,379,690 homes
(30) Hartford & New Haven, Conn … 1,006,280 homes
(53) Providence-New Bedford … 620,010 homes
(78) Portland-Auburn … 401,370 homes
(95) Burlington-Plattsburgh … 323,750 homes
(114) Springfield-Holyoke … 257,080 homes
(144) Salisbury/Dover … 159,640 homes
(155) Bangor … 141,580 homes
(205) Presque Isle … 29,850 homes
Total … 5,319,250 homes
Cubs Media Market …
Chicago is the #3 media market at 3,493,480 homes
(67) Wichita-Hutchinson Plus ... 454,590 homes
(72 )Des Moines-Ames … 431,300 homes
(76) Omaha … 415,510 homes
(85) Madison … 378,290 homes
(89) Cedar Rapids-Wtrlo-IWC&Dub … 344,150 homes
(100) Davenport-R.Island-Moline … 307,050 homes
(109) Ft. Wayne … 267,710 homes
(113) Sioux Falls(Mitchell) … 261,530 homes
(114) Springfield-Holyoke … 257,080 homes
(115) Lansing … 252,890 homes
(116) Peoria-Bloomington … 247,850 homes
(117) Fargo-Valley City … 246,780 homes 
(134) Rockford … 184,360 homes
(147) Sioux City … 157,060 homes
(154) Terre Haute … 142,780 homes
(188) Lafayette, IN … 67,260 homes
Total … 7,909,670 homes
Phillies Media Market …
Philadelphia is the 4th largest television market at 2,993,370 homes.
(41) Harrisburg-Lncstr-Leb-York … 729,440 homes
(54) Wilkes Barre-Scranton … 590,740 homes
Total … 4,313,550 homes
Giants Television Market …
San Francisco/Oakland/San Jose television market is the 6th largest at 2,506,510 homes.
(20) Sacramento-Stockton-Modesto … 1,388,570 homes.
(40) Las Vegas … 737,300 homes
(55) Fresno-Visalia … 574,800 homes
(108) Reno, NV … 271,020 homes
(121) Eugene, OR … 241,270 homes
(140) Medford-Klamath Falls, OR … 170,670 homes
(193) Bend, OR … 62,620 homes
Total … 5,952,760 homes
The Giants also share the Hawaiian market along with every other West Coast team …
(71) Honolulu … 434,730 homes
Total with Hawaii … 6,387,490 homes
Angels Television Market …
Los Angeles is the 2nd largest media market at 5,569,780 homes
(40) Las Vegas … 737,300 homes
(122) SantaBarbra-SanMar-SanLuOb … 230,830 homes
(126) Bakersfield … 221,920 homes
(145) Palm Springs … 158,440 homes
Total … 6,918,270 homes
The Angels also share the Hawaiian market along with every other West Coast team …
(71) Honolulu … 434,730 homes
Total with Hawaii … 7,353,000 homes
Rangers Television Market …
Dallas-Ft. Worth is the 5th largest TV market at 2,571,310 homes.
(10)Houston … 2,185,260 homes
(36) San Antonio … 880,690 homes
(47) Austin … 686,830 homes
(83) Shreveport … 386,150 homes
(87) Harlingen-Wslco-Brnsvl-McA … 361,820 homes
(88) Waco-Temple-Bryan … 353,190 homes
(91) El Paso (Las Cruces) … 336,570 homes
(94) Baton Rouge … 333,010 homes
(107) Tyler-Longview(Lfkn&Ncgd) … 271,400 homes
(124) Lafayette, LA ... 229,320 homes
(129) Corpus Christi ... 203,550 homes
(130) Amarillo ... 195,650 homes
(137) Monroe-El Dorado … 177,410 homes
(141) Beaumont-Port Arthur … 168,420 homes
(142) Wichita Falls & Lawton … 160,540 homes
(143) Lubbock … 160,160 homes
(151) Odessa-Midland … 146,040 homes
(164) Abilene-Sweetwater … 115,630 homes
(179) Alexandria, LA … 90,160 homes
(185) Laredo … 72,060 homes
(197) San Angelo … 55,570 homes
(204) Victoria, Texas … 31,540 homes
Total … 10,172,280 homes
[*Note – the Rangers have TV stations in the markets bolded in blue above. Though the other markets listed aren’t technically in the Rangers market, because of the relative location of these stations broadcasts for Rangers games can be seen throughout the entire Astros market and vice versa. So, games for both the Astros and Rangers can be seen throughout this region.]
2011-2012 Nielson Ratings …
Now, these numbers do not accurately reflect the actual market size. Let’s discuss several huge qualifiers here …
1) Not everyone in these regions is a baseball fan or is interested in any of the particular teams that I’ve noted above. I know that’s shocking that there are actually people out there who don’t like baseball or sports of any kind at all -- but it’s true. There are plenty of people in New York who are far more interested in Broadway and would sooner tune in to an episode of Masterpiece Theatre than to “endure” nine innings of baseball. There are also plenty of sports fans out there who simply aren’t interested in baseball either. If we were to go the Lone Star State, there’s a ton of people down there that simply aren’t interested in a sport if it doesn’t involve throwing a pigskin or bone crunching tackles. It’s all about Friday Night Lights down there.
2) Not all the fans of a particular baseball team live in that team’s broadcast region. As we’re in the age of DirecTV (i.e. MLB’s Extra Innings Package), you can watch your favorite sports team virtually anywhere out of the general market area and avoid the usual regional blackouts.
3) In the case of most of these teams listed above, they share either their entire market or part of their market with other clubs. The Cubs share the same basic media market with the White Sox. The Mets share the exact same market as the Yankees. The Yankees also share the Hartford and New Haven market with the Red Sox. The Dodgers share the same media market as the Angels. Those two both share Southern half of Nevada with the Diamondbacks, Giants, and A’s. The Giants and A’s share the exact same market area together and also the lower 2/3 of Oregon with the Mariners. The Angels, along with all other clubs on the West Coast, share the Hawaiian market. Broadcasts for both the Rangers and the Astros can be seen throughout Texas, Louisiana, and parts of New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Arkansas. Both of them share the Oklahoma and Arkansas Markets with the Royals. So, there is a lot of overlap in many cases.
4) These numbers also do not reflect the international television market. For example, the Red Sox broadcast also reaches to Nova Scotia and the Yankees can be seen in Japan.
So what those figures demonstrate above all … is potential. It gives us a rough idea just what a particular club’s potential is and what can a fanbase reasonably expect in terms of the kind of revenue that they can ultimately generate.
So, what exactly is the Mariners potential?
According to the Nielson Rankings the Seattle-Tacoma market is the 12th largest market in the country at 1,811,420 homes.
How do those other markets that the Mariners Broadcast into rank … and what is the actual size of the Mariners TV Market?
Portland, Oregon ranks as the #22 media market in the country with 1,190,010 homes.
Spokane, Washington ranks as the #73 media market with 426,690 homes.
Boise, Idaho is the #112 media market. Add another 261,810 homes.
Eugene, Oregon – ranks as the #121 media market with 241,270 homes.
Richland, Pasco, Kennewick, Yakima market comes in at #123 with 230,010 homes.
Medford-Klamath Falls, Oregon market comes in at #140 with 170,670 homes.
Anchorage, Alaska ranks as the #148 media market with 155,600 homes.
Idaho Falls-Pocatello (Jackson) market is the #160 market. Add another 128,940 homes.
Missoula, Montana ranks #165 media market. Chalk up an additional 114,590 homes.
Billings, Montana ranks is the #168 media market. Add an additional 109,940 homes.
Butte-Bozeman, Montana ranks as the #189 media market. Add another 66,910 homes.
Great Falls, Montana ranks as the #190 media market. Add another 66,190 homes.
Twin Falls, Idaho is the #191 media market. Add another 65,800 homes.
Bend, Oregon ranks #193 media market. Chalk up an additional 62,620 homes.
Fairbanks, Alaska is the #202 media market. Add an additional 37,010 homes.
Helena, Montana is the #206 media market. Add another 28,050 homes.
Juneau, Alaska is the #207 media market. Add another 25,500 homes.
Which gives us a total of 5,193,030 homes – just in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, and Alaska.
If we add to that the Hawaiian market (which the Mariners share with every other West Coast team) …
(71) Honolulu 434,730 homes
… we come up with a grand total of … 5,627,760 homes.
Geographically speaking, the Mariners have one of the largest broadcast territories in all of Major League Baseball. The closest major league teams to Seattle are the Oakland A’s and San Francisco Giants -- 679 miles away (806 miles by car.) Denver, the home of the Colorado Rockies is 1,021 miles away from Seattle … and Phoenix, the home of the Arizona Diamondbacks is 1,112 miles away.
You can click on the following link for yourself to see a map of Major League TV Coverage Areas …
Major League Baseball TV Blackout Map
Again, the Mariners share about 2/3 of the Oregon Market with the A’s and Giants and share about ½ of the Idaho market with the Rockies. Still … the relative size of the Mariners market noted thus far is impressive indeed, surpassing the Phillies, rivaling that of the Red Sox, and nearly the same as the Giants. In 2010, Fox Sports Northwest (now ROOT Sports) stated that they broadcasted to more than 350 live events each year to 3.4 million cable and satellite homes in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana and Alaska. So in truth, the Mariners broadcast market area is far greater than the 12th largest media market that most people often cite …
Ranking of Baseball Media Markets (just based on teams noted above) …
1) Yankees … 11,088,050 homes
2) Rangers … 10,172,280 homes
3) Cubs … 7,909,670 homes
4) Angels … 7,353,000 homes
5) Giants … 5,952,760 homes
6) Mariners … 5,627,760 homes
7) Red Sox … 5,319,250 homes
8) Phillies … 4,313,550 homes
[*Note – Angels, Giants, and Mariners numbers above all include Honolulu Market]
But wait, we’re not done. In addition to those, the Mariners also have a number of hidden markets as well …
Pay No Attention to the Man Behind the Curtain …
Unbeknownst to many, the reach of the Seattle Mariners stretches far beyond the confines of the United States. Though these markets may be fairly well hidden from the eyes of the general public, their impact is certainly evident in the Mariners coffers. Let’s go behind the curtain and take a peek, shall we?
Take Off to the Great White North … Take Off – It’s a Beauty Way to Go …
“Fifth day of Christmas, my true love gave to me: five golden touques! Four pounds of backbacon, Three French toast, Two turtlenecks, And a beer, what was it? In a tree!”
In addition to their U.S. Market, the Mariners also have an agreement in place with Rogers Cable, Inc to broadcast selected games in to British Columbia and Alberta, which they do through Sportsnet Pacific. In 2009, Major League Baseball International announced that it had reached a 5 year extension with Rogers Sportsnet to be the exclusive Canadian broadcaster of the MLB All Star Game, the Home Run Derby, and the MLB Postseason. Rogers announced that it would carry at least 250 games a year (the figure appears to be closer to 275). This past year, Rogers Cable, Inc. added the MLB Extra Innings Package to their coverage. Mariner radio broadcasts can also be heard in parts of Canada, thanks to CKST in Vancouver.
Vancouver, B.C. is currently the Canada’s 8th largest city with 578,000 people and the Vancouver CMA (the Greater Vancouver area) has a reported population of 2,116,581 (2006 Census.) As far as television market size is concerned, the Vancouver-Victoria market is Canada’s 3rd Largest TV market with 3,413,000 people. Vancouver itself is dominant in the television and film industry, as it has the largest production facility outside of Los Angeles, with 13 sound stages spread over 30 acres. British Columbia is absolutely flush with millionaires. In 2008, Sotheby’s International listed 88 homes in Canada that were priced at $2 million or more -- 49 of them were in British Columbia. Perhaps a few high priced business executives living in the B.C. area would be willing to pony up for some of those corporate suites at Safeco Field – if the team had a winning and exciting product on the field. If the Mariners start winning on a consistent basis and drawing a sizeable Canadian television audience, I could see great potential in terms of corporate sponsorship advertisements during games and the dollars that could be generated for the club.
The Alberta television market is fairly impressive in size as well. Edmonton is the 5th Largest Television Market in Canada at 1,627,000 … and Calgary is the 6th Largest Television Market in Canada at 1,563,000.
Now the Blue Jays have TV broadcast rights throughout all of Canada …but they do share several markets with 3 other MLB teams --- the Red Sox (Nova Scotia) … the Twins (Saskatchewan and Manitoba) … and your Seattle Mariners (British Columbia and Alberta). So, Seattle and the Blue Jays are the only ones who broadcast in the British Columbia and Alberta markets.
You can click on the following link for yourself to see a map of those Major League TV Coverage Areas in Canada …
MLB Canadian TV Blackout Map
If we were to add together those 3 Canadian broadcast markets that the Mariners broadcast in to, we arrive at a fairly impressive figure …
Vancouver-Victoria (Canada’s 3rd Largest TV Market) … 3,413,000 people.
Edmonton (Canada’s 5th Largest Television Market) … 1,627,000 people.
Calgary (Canada’s 6th Largest Television Market) …1,563,000 people
Total Canadian Market Mariners Broadcast in to … 6,603,000 people
To put that in to perspective, the population of Washington State was 6,664,195 in July of 2009 according to the U.S. Census Bureau. There are a lot of rabid sports fans throughout Canada and most households have television. Over 92% of Canadian homes have either Cable or Satellite TV and Rogers Communications Inc. currently has nearly 2.3 million TV subscribers.
Now Canada does not use the Nielson rating system, but just to give us a rough idea, we can translate those numbers in to the Nielson system by comparing those areas to metropolitan areas of the United States.
At 3,439,809 people, Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue area is roughly the exact same size as the Vancouver-Victoria region --- that would give us 1,811,420 homes
At 1,600,852 people, the Providence-New Bedford-Fall River area (Rhode Island and Massachusetts) is roughly equivalent to the Edmonton and the surrounding region – that gives us 620,010 homes.
And since Calgary is just slightly smaller than that area, let’s just say it would be around 600,000 homes.
Combined all together, that would give us a grand total of …
Mariners … 5,627,760 homes (from Wash, OR, ID, MN, AK, and HI)
Vancouver-Victoria … 1,811,420 homes
Edmonton … 620,010 homes.
Calgary … 600,000 homes.
Grand Total … 8,659,190 homes for the Mariners Media Market.
So, those Canadian markets, in combination with those throughout Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Alaska, and even Hawaii give the Mariners a television market (and a potential audience) that rivals that of nearly anyone in Major League Baseball (outside of maybe the Yankees).
Since culturally those areas share a lot more in common with the rest of the Pacific Northwest (they are often included in discussions of the PNW) than they do with Toronto … and there are no other Major League Teams within the vicinity … those markets are absolutely ripe for the plucking. Imagine the impact that an exciting winning Mariners team would have for them. We’d be hearing, “Great game eh?” all the way down to Klamath Falls.
But business opportunities for the Mariners exist beyond the bounds of North America as well …
On November 9, 2000, the Seattle Mariners paid Japan’s Orix Blue Wave more than $13 million for the rights to negotiate a contract with Japan’s greatest superstar – Ichiro. Nine days later, he signed a 3 year deal with the Mariners for a reported $15-20 million. The rest, as we say, is history.
While Ichiro has had a great impact on the field during his time as a Mariner … he has had an equally great impact in terms of business and marketing for the Mariners and all of Major League Baseball. Major League Baseball controls all revenues that come from broadcasting and merchandise sales outside of the U.S. and Canada, so by rule teams must split all monies they obtain evenly with the rest of baseball’s 30 teams. Despite that fact though, Ichiro Suzuki has made the Mariners a mint during his time in Seattle in terms of merchandise sales … advertising dollars … and ticket sales through the gates of Safeco Field.
In February of 2005, the Seattle Business Journal contended, “The full value of Ichiro to the Mariners franchise is incalculable.” Indeed, Ichiro has had a huge impact not only on the Mariners, but on all of Major League Baseball. In November of 2003, Major League Baseball and Dentsu (a Japanese mega-advertising agency) signed a six-year $275 million to broadcast games (both on television and on radio) back to Japan. Ichiro is a Michael Jordan-like icon in Japan and his popularity with the Japanese audience was very much the key to that deal. MLB renewed that deal with Dentsu in June of 2009, which runs through the 2015 Season.
Japanese network NHK broadcast all 81 Mariners home games back to Japan back in 2001 along with 55 home and away games. Though NHK varied its coverage of MLB over time, Ichiro and the Mariners appear to be highly popular among the Japanese audience to this day. In March of 2008, Time Magazine ran a story on the immense popularity of American Baseball in Japan, stating that the American pastime was cutting in to television ratings for Japan’s Nippon Professional Baseball League. Despite complaints by many connected with NPB however, the NHK network announced that they would be broadcasting some 270 games in which Japan’s greatest stars were playing. That was more than twice the number of NPB games that the network planned to broadcast. At that time, NHK broadcasts reached over 13 million Japanese homes. Though ratings for evening games were generally higher than morning games, a regular season 8:30 a.m. game between the Mariners and Yankees that featured the first time Ichiro and Dice-K Matsuzaka had ever squared off drew a rating of 13.3% of the Japanese TV audience.
Millions of Japanese fans have watched Ichiro throughout the years, as evidenced by many Japanese firms who have advertised on billboards at Safeco Field and the numerous Japanese tourists who have visited Seattle.
In 2004 alone, the Mariners and Ichiro drew over 81,000 Japanese tourists to Seattle.
In March of 2008, MLB.com reported, “The Seattle Mariners experienced an increase of almost 60 percent in licensed merchandise when Ichiro Suzuki began playing in 2001.”
Wonder why there’s never been any serious talk of trading Ichiro?
Though there is no doubt Ichiro no longer the player he used to be, the very fact that Major League Baseball is considering having the Mariners and the A’s open the 2012 Season in Japan speaks to his continued popularity there.
Back in 2000, the Mariners bid of $13 million for Ichiro was far and away larger than any bid submitted by another other club. It was a highly aggressive move and a clear message that Principal owner Hiroshi Yamauchi was saying that he wanted him badly. Given the fact of just how profitable Ichiro has been over the years for this club … the fact that Ichiro’s career is rapidly nearing an end … and how clearly the financial impact of having Japanese players has been demonstrated … it is very curious as to why Yamauchi didn’t seem to be all that aggressive in his pursuit of Yu Darvish. As has been clearly shown, if the Japanese have a reason to watch American Baseball – they most certainly will.
Other Offshore Accounts …
The World Baseball Classic has been a phenomenon that is helping to spread baseball throughout the world. Seventeen countries participated in the WBC back in 2009 and it was televised by 60 media outlets, in nine languages, to over 229 countries and territories throughout the world. The event set records for attendance, viewership, and sponsorship. Over the course of the 39 games of the WBC … 801,408 fans showed up to cheer on their national teams. ESPN televised nine of the events, which averaged 1,616,000 viewers (up 14% from the 2006 WBC) and a rating of 1.3 (up 8% from the 2006 WBC). Sponsors were quick to jump on the bandwagon, as 57 companies sponsored the event – more than double the number of sponsors (26) from 2006.
One needs only to look at the Mariners farm system to see evidence of the growing international appeal of the game. The late Greg Halman (Netherlands), Alex Liddi (Italy), and Cavan Cohoes (Germany) are all a testament to just how fast the popularity of baseball is spreading throughout the world.
Major League Baseball was quick to act following the 2009 World Baseball Classic, coming to extensions with Rogers SportsNet and Dentsu … and new agreements with 3 other media outlets – Meridiano, DIRECTV Latin America, and Network Ten.
Meridiano agreed to broadcast eight live MLB games a week throughout Venezuela in addition to the MLB All-Star Game, the Division Series, League Championship Series, and the World Series.
DIRECTV Latin America agreed to broadcast up to 4 games a week on their basic plan and up to 16 games a week (since extended to 22 games) on their extended package in Venezuela. They also agreed to offer MLB EXTRA INNINGS to fans in selected areas of the Caribbean and South America. DIRECTV Latin America provides service to over 6.5 million customers in Venezuela, Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Columbia, and other Latin American Countries.
With players like Felix Hernandez and Franklin Gutierrez on the roster, Venezuelans will no doubt be tuning in to Mariners games.
Major League Baseball International (MLBI) also came to an agreement with Australian based Network Ten, which agreed to broadcast no fewer than 3 live regular season games per week, the “This Week In Baseball” show, and the MLB Postseason in its entirety throughout Australia. In April of 2011, MLBI announced that it had reached an agreement with ONE HD in Australia to broadcast games. Imagine the Mariners popularity down under if Ryan Rowland-Smith, Travis Blackley, and Chris Snelling had actually panned out.
Major League Baseball is also viewed in Europe. Though it’s not highly popular among Europeans yet, there are people there who are interested in baseball (as evidenced by our friend Marco in Italy). Major League Baseball has been available there since 1942 through American Forces Network Europe radio broadcasts (TV broadcasts began in 1954). Today, Major League Baseball games can be seen throughout Europe on ESPN America and Sky Network. If Alex Liddi works out, the M’s certainly will corner the Italian Market – that’s for sure (sounds like a fairly small corner according to Marco).
Baseball clearly appears to be gaining traction in other parts of the globe though. Last season, MLBI renewed several deals with global media carriers and also forged brand new agreements with several others. These countries now broadcast MLB games and programs through the following networks: South Korea (OBS and OBS W), Cuba (TV Marti), Columbia (Mejia Group, IASN, and DIRECTV), China (Guangdong TV, Tianjin TV, and Xiamen Satellite TV), and Vietnam (VTC3). Other regions that also do so include: the Caribbean (IN Demand and DIRECTV), Mexico (Sky and Televista), South America (DIRECTV), Central America (IN Demand and Sky), and the Dominican Republic (DIRECTV).
Major League Baseball can even be seen in the Pacific Rim countries, the Middle East, and Africa through Fox Sports, ESPN International, and ESPN America. Those deals with ESPN’s sister networks, which run through 2013, broadcast more than 300 regular season games, the All-Star Game, the entire MLB Postseason, the World Series, Baseball Tonight, and This Week in Baseball to those regions.
In total, MLBI now has agreements with 102 radio and TV outlets throughout the globe, which show games in 20 different languages, to fans in 220 countries and territories.
Which means that combined with MLB.TV that American Professional Baseball can literally be viewed on all 7 continents almost anywhere on the planet (Yes – those crazy scientists like my brother-in-law can even watch MLB Games at McMurdo Station in Antarctica).
So for savvy minded teams out there … there is opportunity to make even money on an international scale.
Wait a minute MA. I thought you said that Major League Baseball dictates that all revenues from advertising or merchandise sales outside the United States and Canada must be shared with all 30 teams.
Well the answer to that is both YES … and NO – which leads us to our next discussion. And at stake is -- just who is in charge?
Master and Commander …
Chris Bevilacqua of Belivacqua Media Company in New York joined 710 ESPN’s Brock and Salk on Wednesday (December 21st) of this past week and discussed television deals throughout Major League Baseball.
Chris Beva-whad-you-say? Who the heck is that?
Well, Chris Bevilacqua is the man who helped broker the absolute groundbreaking TV Deal with the Pac-12 and is also the man that helped negotiate the Rangers deal last year. (It’s an absolutely riveting interview. You can listen to it in its entirety by clicking on the link below)
[Chris Bevilacqua interview with Brock and Salk (12/21/11 – begins at 15:12]
When asked by Mike Salk how these deals impacted the Mariners, Bevilacqua answered, “Well the rising tide benefits all boats …”
He’s absolutely right. And if Bevilacqua were here right now I’d tell him,“Yes -- but the problem is the tide keeps rising at an alarming rate.”
Only July 13th, 2007, Just 4 months prior to the Mariners deal (on July 13th, 2007), Fox Sports Net Arizona and the Arizona Diamondbacks announced that they had reached an 8-year deal that runs through the 2015 Season. At $225 million, the TV deal means the Diamondbacks receive an average of $28.125 million a season and roughly $156,000 per game.
Just 4 months later on November 8, 2007, the Seattle Mariners and Fox Sports Northwest announced that they had signed a deal “featuring one of the great numbers in cable TV sports history.”
Art Thiel, writing for the Seattle-P.I. at the time, said of the deal …
“The deal is so good neither FSN nor the Mariners want to comment publicly on the amount. But sources in the sports and broadcast industries say the total value is more than $450 million.
The current FSN deal, which was scheduled to expire in 2010, was worth about $300 million, which in 2000 was considered a breathtaking number. The new deal pretty much sucks the rest of the air out of the room.”
Seattle’s $450 million extension, which runs through the 2020 season, makes the Mariners a whole lot more than $156,000 a game. Last year, Deadspin.com made some waves when the controversial website posted actual financial documents they had obtained from several MLB teams including the Mariners. According to those documents, here is a comparison of what the Mariners and Angels were earning in TV and Radio Revenues for the following years …
TV and Radio Revenues
(based upon actual MLB documents obtained By Deadspin.com)
2007 -- $60,182,000
2008 -- $64,365,000
2008 – $42,967,000
2009 -- $45,998,000
Last year on September 27, 2010, the Rangers and Fox Sports Southwest signed a 20 year deal worth a reported $3 billion that will pay them between $75-80 million in TV revenues annually.
This year at Baseball’s GM Winter Meetings it came to light that the Angels and Fox Sports West had come to an agreement that exceeds that, as the deal also reportedly includes an ownership stake in FSW (the Rangers deal didn’t include that). That deal now could pay the Angels up to $150 million a year!
And the tide could be rising much higher than that fairly quickly. Once the situation surrounding the Dodgers is worked out in court and the team is finally sold the bidding between Fox and Time Warner Cable for their TV rights is expected to commence. The Dodgers’ deal with Fox runs out after the 2013 Season and the Dodgers had batted around the idea of launching 2 TV cable networks on their own (1 in English and 1 in Spanish). The number that is being thrown out there right now for the Dodgers is $4 billion!
So since 2007, the level of baseball’s tides have risen over 4 ½ times. Talk about Global Warming.
Now just 4 years later, that deal the Mariners signed with Fox is completely obsolete. The deal that once “sucked the air out of the room” is now sucking the air out of the Mariners’ sails and the sails of all those other teams who signed similar now inferior deals.
Throughout the 1990s and early 2000s, teams looked to “one-up” one another by building shinier, fancier stadiums as teams looked to maximize revenues. New stadiums like Camden Yards (opened 1992) were quickly followed by others like Jacobs (now Progressive) Field (opened 1994) …Coors Field (opened 1995) … Turner Field (opened 1996)… Chase Field (opened 1998) … Safeco Field (opened 1999) … Comerica Park (opened 2000) … and so on. Now … it’s all about TV contracts, as teams are looking to do the exact same thing there.
The teams that are truly doing the best though are masters of their own ship …rather than simply hiring themselves out as deckhands on someone else’s …
Regional Sports Networks (RSN’s) are cable television networks that provide sports programming to local markets. These networks generate income via advertising, through cable customer subscriber fees, through selling air time for other sporting and recreation programs, and by selling off popular programs to other out of market networks that might want to carry them. The vast majority of the dollars that flow in to these RSN’s – the lion’s share of the income that is generated – comes through advertising during professional and collegiate sports events. Because of that harsh financial reality, MLB teams have recently either been committing acts of piracy, making RSN’s walk the plank by giving them a share of the network itself as part of their TV deals … or charting their own course and becoming captains of their own RSN’s.
And one thing that RSN’s allow savvy teams to do is to play the shell game. Pay attention now.
Is the money here in under this shell? (in the team’s coffers) … or under this one? (in the network’s accounts)? Mix ‘em, mix ‘em, round we go – wherever it is, nobody knows.
Teams that have ownership stakes in their own RSN can make money playing by the rules through all the ways described above -- but … they can also round the bases outside the baselines proscribed by Major League Baseball as well. MLB mandates revenue sharing for all teams, but monies could be stowed away in a variety of ways. Team owners and executives could become “cable customers” and charged outrageous subscription fees by the RSN. Advertising dollars coming from outside the United States and Canada could get mysteriously lost in the holds of the RSN (strange things happen with such long journeys). Opportunities for such skullduggery are endless.
Let’s take a look at some notable examples of teams with their own RSN’s …
The New York Yankees …
The Yankees own 36% of the YES Network with Goldman-Sachs & Co. the controlling stake holder (with 40%) and former Nets Owner Raymond Chambers holding a share of the network as well. YES was the top Regional Sports Network in 2009, with a reported revenue of $417.1 million. In 2007, Bloomberg believed that a sale of the network would fetch $2 billion … while Money magazine contended that a “full and fair” price for the entire network would be between $3 and $3.5 billion (in other words far more than the Yankees franchise itself!)
2011 Franchise Value: $1.7 Billion (#1 overall)
2011 Revenue: $427 Million (#1 overall)
2011 Player Payroll: $196,854,630 (#1 overall)
The Boston Red Sox …
The Red Sox, own 80% of the New England Sports Network with the Boston Bruins owning the other 20%. In 2006, the New England Sports Network brought in $125 million in revenue from its 4 million subscribers. In 2009, NESN led all Regional Sports Networks in ratings (9.5), a distinction they’d held since winning the World Series in 2004. Estimates have placed the value of the NESN network itself as high as $2 to $3 billion.
2011 Franchise Value: $912 Million (#2 overall)
2011 Revenue: $272 Million (#2 overall)
2011 Player Payroll: $160,257,476 (#3 overall)
The Chicago Cubs …
The Chicago White Sox …
Like the mafia throughout the 1920s, Chicago’s sports teams rule the sports television industry there. The Cubs, White Sox, Bulls, and Blackhawks each own 20% of Comcast SportsNet Chicago with Comcast itself owning the remaining 20% of the network. In April of this past year, close to 7 million people watched the network.
Chicago Cubs …
2011 Franchise Value: $773 Million (#4 overall)
2011 Revenue: $258 Million (#3 overall)
2011 Player Payroll: $126,380,663 (#6 overall)
Chicago White Sox …
2011 Franchise Value: $526 Million (#10 overall)
2011 Revenue: $210 Million (#10 overall)
2011 Player Payroll: $129,285,539 (#5 overall)
The New York Mets …
Broadcasts for Mets games can be seen through SportsNet New York (SNY), which was launched by the Mets and Time Warner in 2006. Mets owners Fred Wilpon and Saul Katz own 65% of the network with Time Warner (27%) and Comcast (8%) through its majority interest in NBCUniversal controlling the rest. In February of 2011, the New York Times reported that SNY brings in about $120 million a year in revenue and that the overall value of the network could be worth $1 billion (again, more than the Mets organization itself).
2011 Franchise Value: $747 Million (#5 overall)
2011 Revenue: $233 Million (#6 overall)
2011 Player Payroll: $120,147,311 (#7 overall)
The San Francisco Giants …
On December 10, 2007, Comcast and Fox Sports (co-owners of Fox Sports Net Bay Area) announced they had sold the Giants an interest in the network. In exchange, the Giants signed a 25 year contract that enables FSNBA to exclusively show up to 135 games a year. As of that date, the Giants own 30% of the FSNBA with Comcast (45%) and Fox Sports (25%) owning the rest. FSN Bay Area had nearly 4 million cable and satellite subscribers at the time.
2011 Franchise Value: $563 Million (#7 overall)
2011 Revenue: $230 Million (#7 overall)
2011 Player Payroll: $117,784,333 (#8 overall)
Those are some of the top valued franchises according to Forbes Magazine. Now that the Angels have signed their deal with Fox, that means that 8 out of the top 10 most valued franchises either have controlling interest in an RSN (with the Dodgers and Phillies being the only exceptions). Those teams are also 7 of the top 10 in terms of overall revenue … and all of them were in the top 10 in terms of amount spent on player payroll last year.
But alas, the Mariners are on a boat paddling slowly down the River Styx … and can’t even begin to entertain any notion of joining the fast fleet of RSN clipper ships streaking away until at least 2020 …
… or are they?
Advancing to Go …
On December 19th, Mike Ozanian of Forbes Magazine wrote a piece that sent shock waves throughout the Seattle sports community (Marshawn, was that you again?). Ozanian claims that the deal the Mariners signed with Fox has an out clause after the 2015 season … and that according to consultants they too could be in line to get as much as $70 million a year or more from ROOT Sports (DirecTV bought FSNW from Fox). What DirecTV apparently fears that Comcast could swoop in and give the Mariners the same basic deal that’s in place with Comcast SportsNet Chicago (discussed above) … or the one they made with the Astros and Rockets in October of 2010 (the Astros and Rockets both control just under 80% of the new Comcast SportsNet Houston).
Such a deal would certainly be mind-blowing to say the least … but what if the Mariners were to cut the strings and navigate their own course? Could the Mariners actually succeed in launching their own RSN?
Well, the popularity of the Mariners in the Northwest and beyond goes without saying …
As we all know, the Mariners 1995 Miracle Run created an absolute Woodstock-like Kum Ba Yah love fest between the region and the team … and attendance for games reflected that. From the end of the 1995 Season to the end of 1996 Season 1,080,647 more fans came through the Kingdome’s gates.
And following that season and for 8 consecutive seasons (1996-2003) the Seattle Mariners led all MLB teams in television ratings – that's right, they ranked #1 in TV ratings in all of baseball!
Even as late as 2007, TV ratings for the M’s were so good (8.2 -- which was 2nd only to the Red Sox) that the Mariners actually considered starting their own RSN.
I’ve been arguing for the past couple years or so now that the Mariners made a huge mistake in not starting up their own RSN back then. I contended that such a venture not only could have significantly benefited the Mariners, but also potentially the entire Northwest as well. If the Mariners found the start-up costs of an RSN to be simply too expensive to manage by themselves, they could look for potential partners to go in on it with them. Such an enterprise might have been attractive to the Sonics and (who knows) might have helped keep the team in Seattle. They might have also looked South to pair with the Blazers – think Paul Allen wouldn’t be interested? The Mariners, Blazers, and Sounders (or maybe the new NBA Team) could all potentially team up to form their own RSN. In turn, the extra monies garnered from the RSN could help to fund a new NBA and hockey friendly arena in Seattle – opening the door for the NHL and the return of professional basketball there.
Well, it’s taken awhile … but it slowly looks like several in Seattle are starting to see the light including some of the media. 710 ESPN’s Mike Salk discussed that very topic in the following Post-Show Wrap-Up – asking the question of whether or not the Mariners could actually launch their own RSN and if such a network could in turn help lure the NBA and NHL to Seattle …
Could a Mariners TV network lure the NHL & NBA?
Chris Bevilacqua -- the man who orchestrated the Texas Rangers' groundbreaking TV deal and manufactured the PAC 12 Media deal --- had this to say regarding the idea of the Mariners starting their own RSN …
Pitman: “With the size of the Market – Seattle the 12th largest market [MA interject – we’ve shown the M’s market is much bigger than that] – and then you’ve got L.A. and Houston and these much bigger markets that are coming up with these billion dollar figured television deals -- does that work against the Mariners substantially -- the fact that like you just mentioned, there aren’t that many teams, organizations, sports that they’re going to be competing with – or can even team with to form their own RSN? I mean, what kind of challenges does that present the Mariners –that they’ve got such a gigantic territorial footprint without pro sports (except for their own sport) to market?”
Bevilacqua: “Well, I think it’s probably more of an opportunity than it is a challenge. I mean, it’s an area where they can continue to be (and along with the Seahawks, right) the dominant professional sports franchise there in what is still one of the top 15 markets in the United States – and it’s a very dense market, which is why the subscription TV market there is still (all things considered) a very healthy, robust business. And so if you can continue to dominate the local sports landscape and stay ahead of all the rest of the sports franchises in that market you’re going to be in a very, very good position. And there’s plenty of – there’s a few places around that have started their own team owned RSN’s with only a single baseball team, so it’s not (you know) impossible to do. And in fact that might be a terrific opportunity for them.”
Bevilacqua was asked what his strategy would be right now if he was the Mariners and looking for that big payday …
Bevilacqua:“Well, that’s a good question. It’s definitely not a one sized fits all strategy. I mean, each market and each franchise has its own unique characteristics. I mean, one of the things – you don’t really have in that market, right, any winter sports so to speak on a professional level. Right? You’ve got the Sonics moved out – there’s no hockey – so you’re really dealing with a market that’s clearly a baseball market – it’s a fairly large market. And you’ve got the Sounders there and you’ve got a whole bunch of college sports programming on the service. I mean, obviously when you win, right? more people come to your games and more people watch your games on TV. So, I would think you’d want to, over the next couple of years, if you’re the Mariners to continue to stay competitive on the field – really try to establish and widen the brand of the Seattle Mariners in that market. That might require some additional investments around marketing the product. But you want to stay relevant. You want to stay dominant in that market – and set yourself up to be in a great position to – if and when your media rights come in to the market.”
[Chris Bevilacqua interview with Brock and Salk (12/21/11 – begins at 15:12]
So while it appears the Mariners could realistically buy Boardwalk and Advance To Go after 2015, a lot of other factors are in play …
"You've Lost That Loving Feeling, Now It's Gone, Gone, Gone -- Oh, Whoa, Whoa ..."
Mariners minority owner Chris Larson (who owns 30.6% of the team) is going through a fairly nasty divorce right now – the details of which have been very insightful in terms of the true financial situation of the team.
Prior to the 2011 Season, Forbes had valued the Mariners at $449 Million (the 15th most valued professional baseball franchise). Two court-ordered financial appraisers; however, have placed the value of the Mariners much higher than that.
The appraiser on Chris Larson’s side valued the Mariners at $551 Million (that would rank #10 on Forbes’s list – and just $3 million behind the Angels) …
… while the one on his wife’s side concluded the M’s were worth $750 Million (which would rank #5 on that list … $3 Million ahead of the Mets).
Judge William Downing in his ruling ended up concluding the Mariners were worth $641 Million (which would cement them firmly in at #6 on Forbes’s list ahead on the Phillies).
Regardless of which figure you accept, it’s not like the Mariners are standing in line for Soup at the Union Gospel Mission. But in many ways the Mariners are certainly acting like they are …
Jack Zduriencik was hired as GM on October 24, 2008. Payroll for the 2008 Season was $117,666,482 … but in 2011, player payroll came in at $84,865,600. So, since being hired by the Mariners as their GM, Zduriencik has been asked by ownership to work with roughly 30% less financial resources than his predecessor Bill Bavasi. The message coming from the Front Office isn’t truly one of “we’re going to do everything humanly possible to re-take this division and become a perennial World Series contender.” Instead, the rhetoric coming out of the GM’s office is of building from within using primarily inexpensive home grown talent to fill out the majority of the roster spots. The problem with that approach as I’ve discussed in the past; however, is that it takes between 7 and 8 years between the time a player is drafted and the time he’s truly Major League ready. If the Mariners truly want to hold on to Felix Hernandez like they say they do, he will be long gone – as he’s again a free agent after the 2014 Season. And as the A’s just demonstrated with their trades of Trevor Cahill and now closer Andrew Bailey for pennies on the dollar --- Moneyball in a lot of ways simply doesn’t work anymore. Good teams don’t just build through their farm system … they also supplement through Free Agency and are aggressive in going after the best of the best. I’d say the very fact that Jack Zduriencik has been chasing after Prince Fielder as hard as he has this offseason demonstrates that he knows that to be true as well. Unless Jack Zduriencik starts dancing around and screaming, “I’ll show you the money!!!” to Prince at the top of his lungs (like Tom Cruise to Cuba Gooding, Jr.) though, I find it highly unlikely Fielder’s coming here. That’s because whether we’re talking about bringing Prince Fielder TO Seattle … or trying to keep Felix Hernandez IN Seattle -- it’s two sides of the same exact conversation. Beyond the money and all the other features of a region that might draw players and their families to a particular team (i.e. the weather, nice beaches, good schools, good community, etc.) – players want to be in a situation where they feel they can win. And winning is something this Mariners team hasn’t been doing a lot of lately …
The Mariners lost 101 games in 2008 … lost 101 games again in 2010 … and lost 95 more last season. Since the 2002 Season, the Mariners have seen a lot of losing at the ticket window too, as 1,644,161 fans less fans showed up for games last season than they did in 2002 – a drop in attendance of 47%.
That doesn’t sound a lot like the formula for success Bevilacqua described of “staying competitive on the field” … “staying relevant” … “staying dominant in the market” … and “really try[ing] to establish and widen the brand of the Seattle Mariners.”
Now that the Astros will be joining the AL West, the actions of the Mariners organization really don’t make much sense at all. The Astros and Angels now both have significant ownership stakes in the RSN’s and will continue to draw huge paychecks as a result. The Rangers deal reportedly pays them between $75-80 million a year – far and away more than the Mariners are making through their TV deal. If the Mariners truly wish to put themselves in the best possible negotiating position when 2015 rolls around, you’d think they’d be trying harder to do all the things Bevilacqua mentioned.
Nope, their actions don’t make a whole lot of sense from where I’m sitting.
Unless, that is, Mariner owners and executives are afraid of the Mayan Prophecy about the End of the World in 2012. (To that -- I’d simply point out the over 242 incorrect predictions of the End of the World. )
If the goal of the Mariners is to win and to maximize their position, you’d think they’d be a lot more proactive and aggressive in their efforts of trying to take this division back.
But perhaps, the Mariners owners have an entirely different goal in mind. If they were gearing up to sell the team, their actions might in fact make some sense.
If Mariner ownership was in fact looking to sell the team, you might see a lot of cost-cutting moves – getting rid of a lot of dead wood without planting a lot of new pricey trees. In all likelihood, you’d see lower payrolls and wouldn’t see a whole lot of long term high priced deals being made. Well, Ichiro’s contract runs out after 2012 … the deal with Chone Figgins runs out after 2013 – same thing with Franklin Gutierrez. That makes Felix Hernandez the only true big contract on the books at this point.
Hiroshi Yamauchi, the principal owner of the Mariners (who owns 55% of the team) has undergone extreme financial hardship over the past few years. In 2008, Forbes ranked Yamauchi as Japan’s richest person with a personal net worth of $7.8 billion. As of March 2011, Forbes listed Yamauchi’s net worth at $4.6 Billion. So, in a little over 3 years, Yamauchi has lost nearly ½ of his personal assets. Yamauchi’s always been aloof and has never appeared all that truly involved in running the day to day operations of the Mariners. Geoff Baker claims that the “Word on the street has always been that he would ultimately cede control to Larson” thus phasing himself out and turning over the club to local ownership. If that’s true, that might make sense of why the Mariners didn’t appear to get all that heavily involved in the Yu Darvish sweepstakes and why there’s apparently been no talk at this point of extending Ichiro’s contract. Why have a Japanese presence on this team if your Japanese majority owner is looking to get out?
Though Chris Larson does have right of first refusal over Yamauchi’s stake in the club, but will he honestly be looking to continue being an owner himself now that Judge William Downing ruled that he owes his ex-wife Julia Calhoun $180 million – and is solely responsible for paying over $150 million in debts that the couple owes on 2 accounts – to say nothing of the expenses attached the charities he runs and the fact that he lives like Richie Rich.
Baker doesn’t believe that these guys will be Mariners owners for too much longer and frankly, neither do I.
"Everybody Wants To Rule The World ..."
The skies overhead are ominously dark … an endless horde of Uruk-Hai soldiers surround the great fortress of Helm’s Deep … and all appears lost. But somewhere in the distance a rooster crows … a single shaft of light breaks through the clouds … and a dazzling figure comes barreling down the hill leading the charge straight headlong in to the sea of foes.
Chris Hansen could very well be that man leading that charge. According to the Seattle Times, Hansen, a multi-millionaire San Francisco investor with strong Seattle roots, is looking in to build an NBA arena south of Safeco and working with another unnamed man from Bellevue who wishes to bring the NHL to Seattle. Might that unnamed man be Steve Ballmer, who lives in Hunts Point? – that’s basically Bellevue area. He was highly involved in trying save the Sonics before they ultimately were shanghaied and hustled out of town by Clay Bennett and company. Is it beyond the realm of possibility that if the Mariners were to come up for sale that Hansen, Ballmer, or someone like Paul Allen could step in and seize such an opportunity? Hardly.
One thing's for sure -- the Mariners and the situation surrounding their TV contract wouldn't be just a good deal --- it would be a Moby Dick White Whale of an opportunity for some potential owner out there if the team truly goes up for sale. An owner or group of owners could land the Mariners ... and then use the extra dollars created through the RSN to finance a new NBA and NHL ready stadium for the city of Seattle -- thus opening up the door for the NHL and the return of NBA basketball to the Seattle area. An owner who chose to buy the Mariners could then be in line to additionally own an NBA and/or NHL franchise as well.
Such a man ... or men ... would certainly be Master of the Seattle Sports World -- as the Mariners could realistically be the key to the city that finally opens all the locks ... and makes it all happen. If that happens, those new owners would not only have harpooned for themselves a whopper of a prize ... but would also have given many exasperated Mariners and Seattle Sports fans some of the greatest Christmas presents they could have ever asked for.
Sources (by Section):
Sizing up the Competition …
2011-2012 Nielson Ratings …
Map of Major League TV Coverage Areas …
Take Off to the Great White North … Take Off – It’s a Beauty Way to Go …
Major League TV Coverage Areas in Canada (link below) …
Other Offshore Accounts …
Personal Message with Marco on December 23, 2011
Master and Commander …
http://mynorthwest.c...=Brock and Salk
Advancing to Go …
http://mynorthwest.c...=Brock and Salk
"You've lost that loving feeling, now it's gone, gone, gone -- oh, whoa, whoa ..."
"Everybody Wants to Rule the World ..."